Trie Tree using C++ Class


This code is to show you the implementation of Trie Trees using C++ classes. To know more about the Trie Tree Data Structure, please read my post, Trie Tree Implementation… I’m sure you’ll like it..! 🙂 … I have no experience in OOP with C++. In fact, this is my first code in OOP with C++. So, do let me know if my implementation is bad..! 😛 … Compared to my previous code in the post where I talk about the Data Structure, this one comes with a little optimization to the insert() function.

#include <vector>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <cstdio>
#include <cstring>

#define ALPHABETS 26
#define MAX_WORD_SIZE 20

using namespace std;

class TrieTreeNode
{
	public:
		TrieTreeNode * parent;
		TrieTreeNode * children[ALPHABETS];
		vector<int> occurrences;
};

class TrieTree
{
	public:		
		TrieTreeNode * root;
		
		TrieTree() {
			root = (TrieTreeNode *) calloc(1, sizeof(TrieTreeNode));
		}
		
		// Inserts a word 'text' into the Trie Tree
		// 'trie_tree' and marks it's occurence as 'index'.
		void insert(char text[], int index)
		{
		    // Converting the input word 'text'
		    // into a vector for easy processing
		    vector<char> word(text, text + strlen(text));
		    TrieTreeNode * temp = root;
			
			int i = 0;
			
		    while (i < word.size()) {      // Until there is something to process
		        if (temp->children[word[i] - 'a'] == NULL) {
		            // There is no node in 'trie_tree' corresponding to this alphabet
		 
		            // Allocate using calloc(), so that components are initialised
		            temp->children[word[i] - 'a'] =
			 				(TrieTreeNode *) calloc(1, sizeof(TrieTreeNode));
		            temp->children[word[i] - 'a']->parent = temp; // Assigning parent
		        }
		 
		        temp = temp->children[word[i] - 'a'];
		        ++i;   // Next alphabet
		    }
		 
		    temp->occurrences.push_back(index);      //Mark the occurence of the word
		}
		
		// Prints the 'trie_tree' in a Pre-Order or a DFS manner
		// which automatically results in a Lexicographical Order
		void lexicographPrint(TrieTreeNode * trie_tree, vector<char> printUtilVector)
		{
		    int i;
		    bool noChild = true;
					    
			vector<int>::iterator itr = trie_tree->occurrences.begin();
		 
		    for (i = 0; i < ALPHABETS; ++i) {
		        if (trie_tree->children[i] == NULL) {
		            continue;
		        } else {
		            noChild = false;
		            printUtilVector.push_back('a' + i);    // Select a child
		 
		            // and explore everything associated with the cild
		            lexicographPrint(trie_tree->children[i], printUtilVector);
		            printUtilVector.pop_back();
		            // Remove the alphabet as we dealt
		            // everything associated with it
		        }
		    }
		 
		    if (trie_tree->occurrences.size() != 0) {
		        // Condition trie_tree->occurrences.size() != 0,
		        // is a neccessary and sufficient condition to
		        // tell if a node is associated with a word or not
		 
		        vector<char>::iterator itr = printUtilVector.begin();
		 
		        while (itr != printUtilVector.end()) {
		            printf("%c", *itr);
		            ++itr;
		        }
		        printf(" -> @ index -> ");
		 
		        vector<int>::iterator counter = trie_tree->occurrences.begin();
		        // This is to print the occurences of the word
		 
		        while (counter != trie_tree->occurrences.end()) {
		            printf("%d, ", *counter);
		            ++counter;
		        }
		 
		        printf("\n");
		    }
		 
		    printUtilVector.pop_back();
		}
		
		// Searches for the occurence of a word in 'trie_tree',
		// if not found, returns NULL,
		// if found, returns poniter pointing to the
		// last node of the word in the 'trie_tree'
		TrieTreeNode * searchWord(TrieTreeNode * trie_tree, char * text)
		{
		    // Functions very similar to insert() function
		    vector<char> word(text, text + strlen(text));
		    TrieTreeNode * temp = trie_tree;
		 
		    while (word.size() != 0) {
		        if (temp->children[word[0] - 'a'] != NULL) {
		            temp = temp->children[word[0] - 'a'];
		            word.erase(word.begin());
		        } else {
		            break;
		        }
		    }
		 
		    if (word.size() == 0 && temp->occurrences.size() != 0) {
		        // Word found
		        return temp;
		    } else {
		        // Word not found
		        return NULL;
		    }
		}
		
		// Searches the word first, if not found, does nothing
		// if found, deletes the nodes corresponding to the word
		void removeWord(TrieTreeNode * trie_tree, char * word)
		{
		    TrieTreeNode * temp = searchWord(trie_tree, word);
		 
		    if (temp == NULL) {
		        // Word not found
		        return;
		    }
		 
		    temp->occurrences.pop_back();    // Deleting the occurence
		 
		    // 'noChild' indicates if the node is a leaf node
		    bool noChild = true;
		 
		    int childCount = 0;
		    // 'childCount' has the number of children the current node
		    // has which actually tells us if the node is associated with
		    // another word .This will happen if 'childCount' >= 2.
		    int i;
		 
		    // Checking children of current node
		    for (i = 0; i < ALPHABETS; ++i) {
		        if (temp->children[i] != NULL) {
		            noChild = false;
		            ++childCount;
		        }
		    }
		 
		    if (!noChild) {
		        // The node has children, which means that the word whose
		        // occurrence was just removed is a Suffix-Word
		        // So, logically no more nodes have to be deleted
		        return;
		    }
		 
		    TrieTreeNode * traverse;     // variable to assist in traversal
		 
		    while (temp->occurrences.size() == 0 && temp->parent != NULL && childCount < 2) {
		        // temp->occurrences.size() -> tells if the node is associated with another
			// word
		        //
		        // temp->parent != NULL -> is the base case sort-of condition, we simply ran
		        // out of nodes to be deleted, as we reached the root
		        //
		        // childCount -> does the same thing as explained in the beginning, to every
		        // node we reach
		 
		        traverse = temp->parent;
		 
		        for (i = 0; i < ALPHABETS; ++i) {
		            if (temp == traverse->children[i]) {
		                traverse->children[i] = NULL;
		                break;
		            }
		        }
		 
		        free(temp);
		        temp = traverse;
		 
		        for (i = 0; i < ALPHABETS; ++i) {
		            if (temp->children[i] != NULL) {
		                ++childCount;
		            }
		        }
		    }
		}
};

int main()
{
	int n, i, j;
 
    printf("Enter the number of words-\n");
    scanf("%d", &n);
 
    char words[n][MAX_WORD_SIZE];
 
    for (i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
        scanf("%s", words[i]);
    }
 
    // Creating the Trie Tree using calloc so that the components
    // are initialised
    // Always initialize
    //struct node * trie_tree = (struct node *) calloc(1, sizeof(struct node));
 
	TrieTree trie;
	
    for (i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
        trie.insert(words[i], i + 1);
    }
 
 	vector<char> util;
    printf("\n");   // Just to make the output more readable
    trie.lexicographPrint(trie.root, util);
    trie.removeWord(trie.root, words[0]);
    printf("\n");   // Just to make the output more readable
    trie.lexicographPrint(trie.root, util);
 
    return 0;
}

Feel free to comment if you have any doubts..! Commenting is super easy if you are a Facebook, Twitter or a Google+ user…! So, don’t hesitate..! 😉 … Keep practising..! Happy Coding..! 😀

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2 thoughts on “Trie Tree using C++ Class

  1. Hi! you mentioned that insert must be recursive, but i dont see the recursion in there,,,, hope u can help me,
    thanks your blog seems cool!

    Like

    • Hi Claraval..! 🙂 …. By “recursively”, I actually meant simply adding the nodes one-after-the-other… I wasn’t referrring particulary to a recusrive implementation… I have corrected my statement to avoid the ambiguity… The insert function is a simple iterative one… 🙂

      Like

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